24 September 2008 the public was presented the first three-dimensional processor. Development has been called true3D. Tried the staff of the University of Rochester and the Massachusetts Institute of technology. The crystal is operated with a clock frequency of 1.4 GHz.
The fact is that while the absolute majority of integrated circuits had a flat structure. It’s easier to integrate the elements and also to cool them. However, three-dimensional packaging allows you to place larger number of transistors, using this smaller space. It is the future.
More specifically, the present. The first commercial desktop solutions with three-dimensional transistors, appeared in 2011, when Intel introduced a line of Central processors Ivy Bridge. The technology called Tri-gate. Since that time, all Intel integrated circuits have become three-dimensional. Interestingly, the development of this technology began in the distant 2002 year, i.e. nearly ten years before its successful commercialization. Apparently, actual (in all planes) Tri-gate was only during the transition to 22-nm process technology.
Your following Intel 3D processors boasted Samsung and HiSilicon. Their solutions are used in mobile devices. Where the requirements for compactness and energy efficiency are the most stringent. The Korean Corporation also hard at ramping up production of three-dimensional memory. Companies like AMD and NVIDIA (the developers do not have their own production facilities), rely on global partners – GlobalFoundries and TSMC. They also have modern designs. The first three-dimensional solutions of the “red” and “green” will appear in 2016.
The scheme of work planar transistor
Scheme of the three-dimensional transistor
24 September 2012 the company Hitachi was able to record the contents of the CD-ROM on a plate of quartz glass with an area of 2 cm2. The most important information on such carrier can be stored forever.
For writing on glass plate used special laser, capable in the thickness of the quartz engrave microdots. Reading was performed with an optical laser. Information can be recorded in layers.
The process of formation of the dots was in the ultrashort pulses (in the femtosecond, 10-15 C) and the application of spatial-phase modulator capable of changing the phase and amplitude of the laser beam. In the end, a single impulse could be applied to the surface of the plate immediately 100 microdots.
The demonstrated prototype was a square plate area of 2 cm2 and a thickness of 2 mm. Info (700 MB) was recorded in four layers. Quartz glass itself is not afraid of radio waves, no chemicals, no high temperatures. For example, the disc within two hours survived heating to 1000 degrees Celsius.
Scheme of marking plate
September 24, 2012, the company Samsung has presented legendary line of solid state drives 840 Series. In particular, were the models 840 PRO and 840 EVO. Prior to that, the Korean manufacturer has already entered the market with 830-th series, but in 2012, Samsung announced itself as the leader in this market segment. Moreover, the company has its own production facilities.
There is nothing surprising here. The SSD 840 PRO was very fast. It is based on the MDX controller is used, based on three cores Cortex-R4 and uses an eight-channel structure, and increased up to 300 MHz clock frequency. As is known, the power of the chip is crucial in SSD, as it allows to use some additional features without a loss of performance, e.g., the same AES encryption. The second important point is the presence of twice the amount of buffer memory, a component of the now 512 MB. Moreover, the standard has become LPDDR2 chips (chips with low power consumption), against the usual DDR2 adjacent to the controller of the previous generation, which ultimately reduced the consumption of energy.
In the end, a series of models 840 PRO can boast of the linear reading/record-level 540/520 MB/s Performance with random read data size is 4 KB up to 100,000 IOPS. The record is made slightly worse, but still decent – 90 000 IOPS. Well, even by today’s standards, the 840 PRO delivers excellent performance for SATA drives.
Samsung SSD 840. Your PC will be new again