April 19th in history: Moore’s law, the first Fortran program and the launch of the first space station

19 April 1957 for the first time outside of IBM a program was written in Fortran. Fortran – the world’s first high level programming language. It was developed by the team of programmers in IBM c 1954 headed by the mathematician John Backus. After more than 20 years, the Backus admitted in an interview with a magazine: “Most of my achievements justified laziness. I didn’t love to write programs, and, therefore, when I was working on the IBM 701 programming to calculate the trajectories of missiles, I started working on a program that facilitates the creation of programs”. The language Fortran was developed as an alternative to Assembler, low-level programming language, very difficult to handle. The new language allowed us to significantly reduce the amount of code needed to create the software, therefore quickly gained wide popularity.
April 19th in history: Moore
19 April 1957 Herbert bright, Manager in the data center in one of Pennsylvania’s laboratory of atomic energy received the unsigned stack of punch cards from IBM. Bright suggested that these cards – the compiler of a new language Fortran. Then he and his colleagues to load punch cards into a brand new IBM 704 – the first mass-market computer that supports floating-point calculations, and bright colleague, Jim Callaghan, hastily wrote a test program. After the first attempt, the compiler found in the source code error – missed a comma. The staff of the laboratory corrected the error and issued IBM 704 28 sheets containing machine code, which was the same test program. Thus, they became the first users of Fortran outside of IBM, in which this language developed.
April 19, 1965 year in the American journal Electronics published an article authored by Gordon Moore, the future development of semiconductor-based components. Among other things, in this article, the head of research and development the company Fairchild Semiconductor predicted that the density of transistors in microprocessors would double in size every year and a half the next 10 years. His prophecy proved correct and not only was not forgotten, but received a name that is still known – Moore’s Law. In 1968 Gordon Moore along with Robert Noyce founded Intel, and in 1975, Moore amended his so-called law, by changing the time frame. According to him, a year and a half instead of double jump will now occur every two years. Surprisingly, he was right, and his law was valid up to our days. For example, not so long ago, Intel noted that the density of transistors doubles approximately every 2.5 years.
April 19th in history: Moore
“If the efficiency of fuel consumption of the car has increased in line with Moore’s law, you could have a lifetime to spend on a trip on a single tank of gasoline. If the machine has declined each year, as the transistors decrease, the cars would be the size of an ant”
April 19, 1971 was launched into space the world’s first space station – Salyut-1. The presence of a space station in Earth orbit was allowed to conduct research in microgravity, conduct astronomical observations, and for observing the surface and atmosphere of our planet. Unlike satellites, orbital station could accommodate the crew, had all the necessary life support systems, a shower, a toilet and even a special equipment, with which the astronauts could keep fit. Already 4 days after the launch of “salute-1”, to work to it was sent three astronauts. However, during the docking of “Soyuz-10” and the space station failed in a docking station “Soyuz-10”. The astronauts had to come back to Earth. The next attempt to deliver the crew was taken on 7 June 1971. She was more successful, the astronauts spent on the space station for 24 days, however, after the fire it was decided to return home. Unfortunately, during re-entry into the Earth’s atmosphere there was a depressurization of the ship and the entire crew perished. Eventually, on 11 October of that same 1971 “salute-1” was sunk in the Pacific ocean.

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