On April 12 in history: the first manned flight into space, the launch of the Space Shuttle program and the first commercial spam

April 12, 1961, 55 years ago, the first manned flight into space. The honor of being a pioneer was awarded the Soviet citizen, senior Lieutenant and military pilot third class, Yuri Gagarin. Of the 20 applicants for the role of the first cosmonaut he was finally approved just a few days before the flight.
The objective of the mission was one flying around the Earth at an altitude of about 200 km, estimated time – 90 minutes. On the one hand, from Gagarin was required not so much: the Creator of the first manned spaceship “Vostok-1”, Sergei Korolev, tried to automate the control. However, the pilot was waiting for large overloads, a big responsibility and a big risk. It was not clear that a person does manage to survive during this mission: only three out of seven attempts to accomplish the same flight, but so far without passengers on Board, was successful. In addition, physicians have expressed concerns that a man can go crazy in outer space. Allegedly, visited earlier dogs exhibited changes in behavior, but the doctors did not come to specific conclusions, what were the changes.
On April 12 in history: the first manned flight into space, the launch of the Space Shuttle program and the first commercial spam
“Vostok 1”
During the flight of Yuri Gagarin on 12 April 1961, not all went smoothly. Of the failure of the third stage engines shut down later than planned, so the ship went into orbit 100 km above the target. In itself it’s nothing terrible, but if it didn’t work, the braking system, the vehicle and the astronaut would have spent in orbit from 20 to 50 days, while the life support system was designed for only a week and a half.
On April 12 in history: the first manned flight into space, the launch of the Space Shuttle program and the first commercial spam
“Vostok 1”
Fortunately, Yuri Gagarin returned safely. Of course, he had just as much fun to be nervous when the lander 10 minutes is not separated from the ship and when entering the atmosphere, the temperature outside rose so much that the astronaut could see the porthole flowing streams of molten metal. However, the landing went well. The USSR became the first country to launch a man into space and Yuri Gagarin will forever remain in the pages of history.
April 12, 1981, 35 years ago, was made the first flight of the U.S. space Shuttle (Space Shuttle). It was designed to make the most inexpensive transportation of cargoes from Earth into orbit and back.
The main principle was to make the system reusable. It consists, first, of the Shuttle, a spacecraft that is able to send into orbit a weight of 24.4 tons, including the crew of eight astronauts. But back to Earth you can return considerably less than 14.4 tons. For a long stay in space like the orbital ships were not designed. The maximum number of days, namely 17, held in orbit space Shuttle “Columbia”.
On April 12 in history: the first manned flight into space, the launch of the Space Shuttle program and the first commercial spam
Space Shuttle “Columbia”
But the Shuttle set off from Earth and go into orbit could not. In this he was helped by two solid rocket boosters that separated from it after two minutes. But they were not disposable. After the engines were descent module performed landing using special parachutes, they were taken back and prepared for the next start. One of the three components was designed only for one use – the fuel tank. Larger than the Shuttle itself, it was disconnected later engines, and its main portion was burned in the atmosphere.
In 2011, the Space Shuttle program was completed and the ships were decommissioned and became the property of museums. For 30 years they made 135 flights (originally to achieve profitability planned 30 flights a year). Twice have crashed. In 1986 the Shuttle called Challenger exploded a minute after take off, all 7 crew members died as a result of cabin depressurization. In 2003, the Shuttle Columbia, returning from orbit, also with seven crew members, broke up in the air at the altitude of 63 km. the Reason is called injury coverage chip wing fuel tank during launch from Earth.
On April 12 in history: the first manned flight into space, the launch of the Space Shuttle program and the first commercial spam
The wreckage of the space Shuttle Columbia
April 12, 1994 was registered the first case of spam for commercial purposes. Thanks written in Perl script, and no one person under the name Jason managed to leave the spam-ad by at least 6 thousands of so-called newsgroups in the Usenet. As it turned out, for this service he was paid a couple from Arizona. They had their own little firm, providing legal services. In the ad they offered to help people with completing all documents for participation in the lottery prize which was a green card – a residence permit in the United States. The ISP serving including two treacherous lawyers, was received within two days after that incident so many complaints from outraged Usenet users that the mail server is always “fell” because of overload. Subsequently, the resourceful couple said that due to the spam ad, they were able to attract a thousand new customers and earn extra hundred thousand dollars.
On April 12 in history: the first manned flight into space, the launch of the Space Shuttle program and the first commercial spam

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